Who is not familiar with the expression “Water is life”. Everyone heard him. But think, what do you personally know about this vital resource for us? Water is still little studied, although it surrounds us, and makes up a large part of the human body. At the same time, many people treat it too lightly, neglecting its importance. The reason for such a lack of respect for the main resource of the Earth is not important.
More importantly, our oversight can be deadly for us and for future generations. If there is no water on earth, there will be no life!
What water is it?
It seems that there is nothing simpler than water – the usual chemical combination of two elements. In fact, H2O, like the life it supports, is diverse and has limitless characteristics. No wonder many eminent scientists argue that water is perhaps the hardest substance for a thorough study.
Consider as an example natural water taken from several different sources. Dozens of laboratory studies have long proven that even with exactly the same chemical composition, samples of ordinary water from different places will affect our body in different ways. The reason for this is the different conditions in which the water content took place.
Also, water is a universal solvent for many elements, so chemically pure water in nature, most likely, you will not meet.
But water is conventionally divided into several main types:
Water has long been in short supply
Three quarters of the earth’s surface is hidden under water. Its reserves in nature are maintained by a constant cycle. But, despite this, today its acute deficit has covered almost 60% of the earth’s surface. Moreover, according to the latest statistical calculations of scientists, only 2% of all water reserves on our planet are fresh water. Its deficiency or poor quality caused diseases for half a billion people.
In addition, the situation is exacerbated by the large-scale development of urbanization. Today, more than 6.1 billion people live on earth, and by the middle of the century, according to forecasts of statisticians, this number should double. The UN reports say that by 2050 more than 4.2 billion people will live in areas that are unable to meet even the minimum need for drinking water.
Already today, water resources can be considered depleted in many developing countries, and it is in them that the largest population growth is expected. Currently, the population of the Earth uses more than half of fresh water. Of these, two thirds are used by agriculture.
According to experts, water consumption by 2025 will reach 75% of the current level, and this is only due to an increase in the population. More than 1 billion of our contemporaries have no access to clean water. The situation is aggravated by the facts about the criminal and not careful attitude of man to water, when sewage and industrial waste are discharged into open water bodies without treatment. This figure in some developing countries reaches 95%.
Consequences of water scarcity for living organisms
As you know, water does not have any nutritional value, but it is important for all living things. Almost 90% of it is found in plants, about 75% in the human body. Its presence is an indispensable requirement for the possibility of ensuring the vital activity of any organism.
With a decrease in the amount of water used, as well as its salt composition, there are disorders in digestion and hematopoiesis. It is water that regulates heat exchange between the body and the environment, and also maintains a constant temperature.
A person feels any transformation of water in the body quite sharply. He simply will not be able to live long without her — a few days at the most. If the lack of water is only 2% of the total body weight, the person is thirsty, lost 6-8% – the threat of fainting, 10% loss causes hallucinations and swallowing disorders, more than 12% – death.
On average, a person should consume 2.5 liters of water per day, but an excess of it can also create health problems:
- overload for the heart;
- excessive sweating;
- loss of salts;
- general weakening.
A little about the composition and properties of water
The mineral composition of water also matters. Usually a liter of this liquid used for drinking contains up to two grams of minerals. But the human body for the normal course of many physiological processes requires substances contained in water in small doses. A simple example: if the amount of fluoride in water is less than 0.6 mg per 1 liter, then prolonged use of such H2O contributes to the development of caries.
Sulfuric acid and carbonate salts of calcium, magnesium and iron affect the hardness of water. If there are few of them, the water is soft; if there are many, it is hard. You will not be able to boil meat and vegetables well in it. Because from the interaction of calcium salts in water with proteins, which these products are rich in, insoluble compounds are formed. Moreover, the body will not be able to fully and quickly assimilate such food. Hard water tea will not brew well and will not delight you with its taste.
Too hard water is not particularly pleasant to wash your face. And if you wash clothes in this water, detergents will be needed in large quantities, and the washing machine will fail much earlier than the operating period. Hint: At home, reducing the hardness of such water can be achieved by boiling it.
Ordinary drinking water sometimes becomes a means of spreading such dangerous infectious diseases as dysentery, cholera and typhoid fever. To infect it, they just need to get into it. Moreover, they can maintain their viability for a long time. So, bacillus typhoid bacteria can survive for up to 6-7 months in river water.
And by the way, according to the majority, water is just a chemical compound. Are you sure you know everything about water?
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