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Water chemistry

The chemical properties of water are truly amazing! It was they who determined its leading role in the emergence of life on earth. The fact is that water is a kind of universal catalyst, it improves reactions between other chemical elements, which, in the absence of water, are not highly active.

Water that has not passed filtration and purification usually contains many substances in solid, liquid and even gaseous state. Therefore, water is very diverse in its composition and can have such an interesting chemical composition that it is just right to be surprised!

It is customary to divide water into three categories:

  • fresh water – with minerals and salts up to 1 gram in one liter,
  • mineralized – with the amount of additives up to 50 grams per liter,
  • salty – more than 50 grams per liter.

In ordinary river water, you can find many fairly massive particles that are considered pollutants. To purify water from large particles, it may be sufficient to filter it through a layer of porous material. So, very often coal, special clay, etc. are used for this.

The water contains a lot of organic compounds and living things – bacteria. Conventional charcoal filters help get rid of most microorganisms, however, chlorine is usually used for optimal water purification of bacteria. 0.7 grams of chlorine is enough to sterilize one liter of liquid.

Filtration allows you to purify water only from those substances that do not dissolve in water. Removing soluble impurities from water is much more difficult. To do this, you have to use the distillation process (otherwise it is called distillation), as well as ion exchange.

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Dissolution of solid, liquid and gaseous substances in water

By its structure, water is two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It should be borne in mind that in nature, hydrogen exists in three varieties at once: light hydrogen (protium), heavy hydrogen (deuterium) and superheavy hydrogen (tritium). Protium in the universe is 99.999% of all hydrogen. Heavier isotopes are very rare. However, water always contains “heavy water” molecules, where hydrogen is deuterium or tritium.

Gaseous substances dissolve easily in water. For example, various constituents of the earth’s atmosphere or gases in the earth. The ability of a gas to dissolve in water depends on many factors, including:

  • from temperature,
  • pressure,
  • mineralization,
  • the presence of other gases in the aqueous solution.

Solids are also water soluble. Usually this process is described as a struggle of electrostatic forces. Ions of solids with the same charge are attracted to water molecules with the opposite charge. In other words, water is an electrolyte, and many substances are easily dissolved and toned in it.

Some chemical compounds take colloidal form in water. Therefore, water is an essential part of the diet of all living things on the planet: although it does not replenish calories, it is an important part of the tissues of many animals and plants.

Water can contain ions. On this basis, water is divided into three categories:

  • chloride water,
  • sulfate water
  • bicarbonate water.

Each category has its own groups:

  • calcium,
  • magnesium,
  • sodium.

Thus, water can be classified by cation.

An important characteristic of water is the concentration of hydrogen ions. The ion concentration is indicated by the pH symbol. So, in sea water, the concentration of ions exceeds 8 pH. For ordinary drinking water, this indicator should be in the range of 7-8 pH.

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